Mittwoch, 8. Dezember 2010

8. Siedlungspolitik Israel - Zionist/Israeli Planning: The Fabrication of Israel IV.2 After Oslo

Neue Veröffentlichung! Teil 8 online verfügbar (siehe unten)


About the Usurpation and Destruction of Palestine through Zionist Spatial Planning

A Unique Planning Issue

Viktoria Waltz - Herausgeberin - Dortmund 2010 – Eigenverlag

Die hier in loser Folge zur Veröffentlichung vorliegenden Texte geben einen detaillierten Einblick in die Vorgänge, die zum Konstrukt Israel geführt haben und lassen keinen Zweifel daran, dass es unter den bestehenden zionistischen Rahmenbedingungen um nichts geringeres als das Ganze geht, um ein jüdisches Israel ohne Palästinenser und mit keinem Impuls für zwei Staaten, die nebeneinander leben könnten und auch nicht um eine Integration Israels in den Nahen Osten, sondern um die Fortsetzung des aggressiven, zerstörerischen Kurses bis hin zu weiteren Kriegen. (wöchentlich mittwochs online)

Part 8
Jad Isaac
2. After Oslo: The Judaizing of the West Bank - Preparing the
Geographic Holocaust on the Palestinian Land Since 1993
From last part IV 1 (look at Blog Archive Oct/Noc 2010, part 1-7):
West Bank and Gaza were pure Palestinian areas before 1967 under Jordanian and Egyptian governance. The population living in villages, cities and refugee camps earned more or less sufficiently their living with farming. The West Bank was serving Jordan with vegetables, fruits and crops; the ‘Jerusalem stone’ a favourite building material was exported to the Arab neighboured countries. ...
When Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza, life, especially mobility deteriorated again and Palestinians faced immediately what happened to many of them in 47- 49 during the first ethnic cleansing: expulsion, census, expropriation, restrictions of life in many directions. Same regulations and laws as before were used to expropriate land and extend Jewish colonies (see III.1) …
As shown, the transformation of Palestinian land into Israeli and Jewish did not come to an end after Madrid and Oslo. In addition, the construction of the separation wall can be understood as part of a refining plan within the same goals. The next paragraph will go deeper into facts on the ground.
Jad Isaac
2. After Oslo: The Judaizing of the West Bank - Preparing the
Geographic Holocaust on the Palestinian Land Since 1993
1993 was a turning point in the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. An interim peace agreement ‘Oslo Accord’ was signed by both parties to initiate political solution for the conflict. But the crucial issues such as Jerusalem, borders, water, refugees and Israeli settlements were left to be determined in the final status talks to be held in 1996. It was agreed that "Neither side shall take any step that will change the status of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip…" (Article XXXI, Oslo II, 1995.)
According to the ‘Oslo II’ agreement of September 1995, the West Bank was classified into Areas A, B, and C, with varying levels of control. The Israeli military withdrew from area A, and complete control was assumed by the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). This marked the first time that a Palestinian Government retained sovereignty over any Palestinian land. In area B, the Palestinians were supposed to have full control over civil matters but Israel continues to have overriding responsibility for security, which consequently excluded factual Palestinian sovereignty.
In area C, Israel retains full control over land, security, and natural resources. According to the agreement, the Palestinians should have regained control over 95 % of the West Bank and Gaza by July 1998. However, on the ground, this did not happen, not even 20% of West Bank and Gaza area came under Palestinian control and East Jerusalem is still excluded.
By March 2000, area A comprised only 18% of the West Bank total area (1,004 km²) and a further 254.2 km² of the Gaza Strip, (which was occupied by Israeli Settlements but was later evacuated in August 2005), while area B comprised 18.3% of the total West Bank Area (1,035 km²), while the remaining area falls under the full Israeli control in area C and comprises 61% of the total West Bank Area (3,452 km²). (see table 1)
Table 1 The Redeployment Percentages according to the Agreements
Palestinian share according to sovereignty in A outlines the various stages of the interim agreements and the corresponding changes.
Oslo II (May - 1994)
A 3.0%
B 24.0%
C 73.0%
Wye I (October 1998)
A 10.1%
B 18.9%
C 71.0%
Wye II & III (not implemented)
A 18.2%
B 21.8%
C 60.0%
Sharm I (September 1999)
A 10.1%
B 25.9%
C 64.0%
Sharm II (Delay in Implementation) (January 2000)
A 12.1%
B 26.9%
C 61.0%
Sharm III (Delay in Implementation) (Situation March 2000)
A 18.2%
B 21.8%
C 60.0%
Current Situation , divided areas through more than 600 devices
No change
(Source: ARIJ GIS Database/ OCHA maps 2008)
On September 28, 2000, the second Intifada, known as Al Aqsa Intifada, erupted, following the provocative entry of Ariel Sharon into the sacred space of the Al Aqsa mosque on the Dome of the Rock. This was not only the reaction to Sharon's aggression, but to the whole failure of the peace process so far, visible in the increasing settlements, closures, and house demolitions and so on. Israel intensified its ‘internal closure’ policy (restriction of movement within the West Bank, even between nearby communities) in addition to the already present ‘external closure’ (restriction of movement from the West Bank to Jerusalem, Israel or Gaza). On April 2002 Israel again invaded the Palestinian authority areas, destroyed and besieged cities and villages and re-established an occupation situation by means of permanent control, checkpoints, closed areas … etc.
2.1 Expropriation Tools as Before
Following 1967, Israel immediately started the process of expropriation and judiasing in the West Bank; that is erasing any prospect for a future viable Palestinian state and reinforcing the Jewish presence in the Palestinian areas. It unilaterally undertook a series of geopolitical actions that undermined the Palestinian presence and imposed facts on the ground, which included the annexation of East Jerusalem, the demolition of Palestinian houses, the confiscation of Palestinian lands, the establishment of Israeli settlements, the construction of bypass roads, and final but not last the construction of the segregation wall. The following sections will investigate the impacts of the undertaken actions on the Palestinian landscape.
Land confiscation
Immediately after 1967 war, Israel commenced the policy of land confiscation. It declared vast areas of the West Bank as “State Land.” Soon after, this land was zoned as military closed areas and Nature Reserves which were later designated for the establishment of Israeli settlements. The land property and land use laws that the Israelis used in order to grab more lands are again the following, where some of them were already used in Israel as explained before:
The absentee property law: As a result 2910 km² of the West Bank’s Land was classified as abandoned property or State Land
Freezing of land registration: In 1968, Israel froze the land registration process and cancelled incomplete registrations, alienating land from the Palestinians, defending it against Palestinian use, and ensuring through such processes as registration and leasing that Palestinians are disqualified from having any future benefit from that land.
Security military orders: certain areas were declared as security zones and land was confiscated for security and military reasons. Most of the eastern slopes of the Jordan Valley were put under military zone.
Restrictions on Palestinian use: Palestinians are restricted to use areas that were declared as combat zones, Nature Reserves and buffer zones that are created around the settlements, bypass roads and military camps.
Land expropriation for public purposes: According to military Order number 321 lands can be expropriated for public purposes. However, the word public in this case meant “for Jews only.” Legal power and authority were given to the military commander to evacuate by force land owners who refuse to abide the evacuation orders. Other orders were also used in this context:
§ The Ottoman Law of 1885: if a land is not cultivated for three consecutive years, it is declared as a "State Land."
§ The British Planning Scheme RS15 and RJ 5 of before 1947 zone: nearly the entire West Bank as ‘agricultural land’ and assign the District Commission (today the Israeli Civil Administration) the right to give relaxation.
Such policy allowed Israel to control, until the negotiations, more than 60% of the occupied West Bank and Gaza territory (Benvenisti 1988) and built meanwhile 199 Israeli settlements including the settlements in Jerusalem and are accommodating nearly 530,000 Israeli settlers along with a serving 875 Km network of bypass roads. Such a devious Israeli policy has led to a further usurpation of Palestine and reshaped its geophysical structure to a situation, which no longer connects it as a single entity but isolated islands by the Israeli settlements and bypass roads.

2.2 The Ongoing Process of Judaising Palestine with Plans and Planning Tools..