Dienstag, 30. November 2010

7. Siedlungspolitik Israel - Zionist/Israeli Planning: The Fabrication of Israel IV.1 The 67 Occupation…

Neue Veröffentlichung! Teil 7 online verfügbar (siehe unten)


About the Usurpation and Destruction of Palestine through Zionist Spatial Planning

A Unique Planning Issue

Viktoria Waltz - Herausgeberin - Dortmund 2010 – Eigenverlag

Die hier in loser Folge zur Veröffentlichung vorliegenden Texte geben einen detaillierten Einblick in die Vorgänge, die zum Konstrukt Israel geführt haben und lassen keinen Zweifel daran, dass es unter den bestehenden zionistischen Rahmenbedingungen um nichts geringeres als das Ganze geht, um ein jüdisches Israel ohne Palästinenser und mit keinem Impuls für zwei Staaten, die nebeneinander leben könnten und auch nicht um eine Integration Israels in den Nahen Osten, sondern um die Fortsetzung des aggressiven, zerstörerischen Kurses bis hin zu weiteren Kriegen. (wöchentlich mittwochs online)

Part 7
Further Devastation and Destruction - Judaizing the West Bank and the Gaza Strip after the Occupation 1967

Conlusion from Chapter III:
The year of 1948, the foundation of the Jewish State of Israel in new frontlines did not set an end to usurpation of the Palestinian land - it was but a starting point for more and more expropriation and expulsion. After all - with British and finally international support - the Zionist leaders succeeded in having a state in Palestine and even a larger area than the UN had proposed to them.
The state was founded on a dangerous Jewish nationalism, a racist ideology which backed a fateful ethnic cleansing of the Non Jewish Palestinians and expulsion of half of the indigenous people. However, more than 150.000 Palestinians remained in the country, at that time still forming one quarter of all inhabitants.
The usurpation of Palestine was not complete in terms of property and ownership; and finally in terms of land use it was not even Jewish: the majority of the Jewish immigrants concentrated living in the cities of the coast. Consequently, the Zionist leadership pulled out all steps useful for judaising the land: extreme expropriation by laws and regulations; systematic Jewish immigration and distribution of Jewish people; imposing all kinds of restrictions and discrimination to the Palestinians. Spatial planning played a crucial role. Beside a framework of expropriation and annexation instruments national, regional, district and local plans became essential tools for judaising and colonising the land of the Palestinians in a very short time. ...
The most important steps killing the Palestinian existence in Israel to the utmost were ... the implementation of the national plan for the distribution of Jewish immigrants, the program of 30 new cities and the immediate expropriation of the so called absentees, the Palestinian refugees. The Palestinian land property shrank from 93-94 percent in 1948 to less than 3 percent of the total to date....Hence Palestinians ... have become a marginal minority in terms of political power, economic importance and social influence. Israel is the Jewish State.
The war of 1967 and the occupation of the West Bank including East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip was the initial step for further colonization ....
The following section will investigate how Zionist ideology and strategic planning, was implemented within the new frontiers – also war might become a regular tool within further colonization. (look at Archiv Nov.2010)

Further Devastation and Destruction - Judaizing the West Bank and the Gaza Strip after the Occupation 1967
At the end of the sixties, Israel had finished main issues of colonisation within the 48 borders: the Palestinians were a minority under control and more than 90% of their land was judaised. However, ‘Israel in Palestine’ was not complete and the Jewish State an amputee in sense of before 48 Mandate borders and the ‘promised’ land by the British. Furthermore, the important water resources, the northern and the southern aquifer were still under Palestinian control.
It was shown in the previous sectors that the military conquest of the West Bank and the Gaza Region was the logic consequence of Zionist policy from its very beginning. Most important aim of the 67 war was to reach control over the Jordan valley, the water resources (see section IV5) and finally East Jerusalem with the Old City including the ‘Wailing Wall’. The occupation made the Zionist vision of a complete Jewish country in Mandate borders possible. Only 'obstacle' was the Palestinian people on that land.
Planning tools were already approved: ‘waving a net of colonies, acquiring wide stretches of land, stretching strong ropes between the pegs’ and so on was the already used colonial ‘planning kit’. The same expropriation practice and land robbing like in Israel after 1948 was carried out. The destruction and colonisation process started again with a census. The Zionist movement, in form of the World Zionist Organisation (WZO) became again the driving force behind the usurpation process. How this happened is the matter of the following section.
Waltz will begin with an overview and summary of the main usurpation steps and special planning tactics, Jordan planning law had to be added. Isaac will follow up with details after Oslo and investigate the effects of the segregation wall. Gaza, what has been left by Israel in 2005 will be reviewed (Isaac/Waltz) as an example for Israel's high ambitions on the one hand and pragmatic retreat from the battle field on the other hand if necessary. Finally two aspects will be touched: transportation (Awadallah/Atrash) and water (Isaac/Waltz).
The following section aims to give an overview. Main steps are presented; method again is the review of results and interpretation of the driving forces, hence planning methods and instruments.
Viktoria Waltz
1. General Planning Strategies and Executed Policies after Usurping
West Bank and Gaza Region - Short Overview
West Bank and Gaza were pure Palestinian areas before 1967 under Jordanian and Egyptian governance. The population living in villages, cities and refugee camps earned more or less sufficiently their living with farming. The West Bank was serving Jordan with vegetables, fruits and crops; the ‘Jerusalem stone’ a favourite building material was exported to the Arab neighboured countries.
Jordan as well as Egypt had not done much for developing infrastructure. Roads, water pipes and electricity net were in poor condition. Social services, hospitals, schools, kindergarten were developed on a small level. Who could afford used private institutions – a tradition in Palestine. Who wanted a better and safe living for the family went out of the country to work or study in neighbouring states, the US or Europe. Thousands of Palestinians earned their living in the Gulf States and elsewhere, inspiring novels and poems about being exiled (Kanafani 1984).
When Israel occupied the West Bank and Gaza, life, especially mobility deteriorated again and Palestinians faced immediately what happened to many of them in 47- 49 during the first ethnic cleansing: expulsion, census, expropriation, restrictions of life in many directions. Same regulations and laws as before were used to expropriate land and extend Jewish colonies (see IV.1). A census declared people on their land as inhabitants and those, who had left their properties even only for a while were defined ‘absentees’ and their land fell for expropriation. Consequently, until the beginning of the so called peace process Israel authorities had already confiscated in the West Bank 79% of the land. From this
· 44% was taken for ‚military purposes ‘,
· 20% for ‚safety reasons’ ,
· 12% for ‚public purposes ‘ (e.g. green and recreation areas according to town planning acts), as well as
· 12% as land of the ‘absentees’.
(Coon, 1992)

In addition to the Israeli law the Jordanian Planning Law of 1966 was usurped and ‘integrated’ into Israel’s military order system and managed to serve Israeli interest of changing the map. Al Haq revealed 1986 about Israeli planning strategies in the West Bank in detail the crucial mechanism of this new strategy (Al Haq 1986). Through military order 418 e.g., the 'Order Concerning Town, Village and Building Planning’ of 1971, transferred the planning task of the Higher Planning Council under Jordanian Minister of Interior simply to the Israeli Military Administration. The person in charge was then an Israeli officer managing ‘interior affairs’. ...

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